And this newest war is already, quite visibly, sowing the seeds of insecurity to come. It may be most useful to view the whole period from the early cold war years through the present war as a single historical era: Throughout that era, U.
We now see all the most enlightened nations of the world constantly experimenting, planning, and devising the best means of defence and offence; we see the best moral, military, scientific, and mechanical minds more or less brought to bear upon these two problems: How best to defend ourselves and are surrounding them with iron-dads, floating batteries,and torpedoes.
One writer says that the British Admiralty have made a lamentable failure of the Plymouth forts and Gibral- tar shields, and it is well known that in some cases they plate the tops of the fort, leaving the base exposed, when they know by actual experiment that a single shot has splintered granite blocks fifteen feet back from the face, or point of impact.
Na- val tactics are being reversed; forts were formerly used to pro- tect ships, but now ships have to protect forts, such as they are. Doubtless the true theory is mutuality; one auxiliary to the other.
Accompanying this article will be found a plan, reduced so long as provisions and ammunition hold out a garrison of guns is so far in advance of the power of resistance in ships from working drawings drawn to a scale, to admit of eight fifty men in its iron shield couid never be made to surrender.
It gets The attack of a siege train would be quite as futile; starva- not at all reliable; and the old fortifications are still more un- its flotation by being inclosed in an iron tank, say two feet tion or treachery might capture one of these forts, but powder reliable; hence the necessity of corresponding improvements in greater in diameter than the bottom section of the fort, having and ball never.
When our largest guns the intermediate space filled with water, or, in very high lati- All the advantages pertaining to the revolving fort maybe consisted of 68 pounders, it was but pastime for the brick ma- tudes where there is danger of freezing, oil may be used.
The transferred to a floating battery by constructing a solid tim- English 2 honors summer reading assig and stone cutter to construct fortifications. But now upper section or fort proper is constructed entirely of iron or ber platform or shield feet square, more or less, from 12 or pounders have reduced all such fancy structures to steel platesof any given thickness; in this plan it is proposed to 20 feet deep, with proper fastenings, and plated with iron, worthlessness.
It is now guns versus forts, iron and steel to use three thicknesses of six-inch plates, which are now con- to be ram and shell proof, leaving in the center a well-hole against iron and steel.
English 2 honors summer reading assig the iron-clad is now more than a sidered sufficient to resist any projectile that has been contem- through the shield of requisite diameter to receive the fort, in match for the old fort, and iron plating has heretofore proved plated.
It is only a question of buoyancy, whether this fort be which case it will be seen that the timber shield is a substitute a failure, therefore we see great energy and anxiety exhibited one foot or four feet in thickness, which is governed by the for the iron tank, with this difference that it has no bottom but by foreign nations to protect their fortifications.
To preserve superficial area of the base or lower section immersed, so the sea. In case of necessity this immense shield is towed into their guns in barbette they mount revolving turrets on the top, that, it will be seen, this system is unlimited in its capacity.
To an obstruction of this kind and in the angles of their forts, but this as a naval defence The lower section is divided off into store rooms for provisions rams and iron-dads will give a wide berth. With a few of will probably prove a useless experiment.
Other experiments and ammunition, and into quarters for officers and men. In peace let us prepare for war, but in time of peace to be reloaded; and, lastly, it is proposed to mount a miniature guns. Beside the intrinsic value of this battery, it gives ad- and firing over the embankment, and then gracefully retir- could not be used on board of ships, nor do we think they ditional facilities for using torpedoes or other submarine mug.
These somewhat novel devices tend to show the drift of 1 would be practical in the present fortifications; but on this hy- works. We know, too, that the very exis- single armtogether with other appliances to facilitate load- ened minds of the day that the more expensive and elaborate tence of some Governments depends on the solutiok of one or hug, opening and closing the port stoppersCaptain Ryans sys- the defensive works required, the greater the safety against the other of these problems.
We know that Governments that tem insures a great saving of men and time. But this does not prove that cheaper engines of war may not be devised, and still be more effective.
That this sys- tem of defence is the cheapest friay be demonstrated by com- parison with the cost of one of the British iron-dads. Let us take the ilfinotceur, which was built as a model war ship, fully up to the times.
The weight of her hull alone is 7, tuns five times more than this fort.
Armor and backing 6, tunsfour times more than the fort; engine and coal 2, tons more than half as heavy again; making, exclusive of arma- ment, 16, tuns, within a fraction of ten times the weightof this fort.
But the Bellerophon is claimed to be an improvement, though smaller and lighter, with a saving of a quarter of a million pouuds. These statements are taken from a paper read by Mr.
Reed before the Royal Society, London. But the construction account is not the only or most un- favorable comparison, the cost of maintaining these sea monsters on a war footing is simply enormous, to say nothing of the dgterioration, even when laid up in ordinary.
It re- quires a strong detail of officers and men to keep them afloat and in repair, ivhereas this fort is never in danger of sinking, or getting out of repair in its machinery, and in time of peace these forts are to be laid up, by drawing off the water and allowing the fort to settle down on its ways, when the iron has only to be protected from oxidation, and a detail of one man to a fort would be a sufficient guard.
When in a case of emergency, by having connection with a reservoir, in twenty minutes the fort could be set afloat, all in fighting trim.
Neither is this all the saving by. The discrepancy between their respective powers of offence and defence, may be presented in a few words. The forts are to be absolutely impregnable against any and all shot that can be hurled against them; each one armed with a battery of eight or more guns, double, or perhaps quadruple the weight that will be carried by any iron-clad; with pro- jectiles in proportion, delivered with almost the accuracy of a rifle marksman, at the rate of one every minute, aoainst the sides of a ship made of iron and wood, probably in its strongest parts equivalent to eight inches of iron; for it must be remembered that ships of this type are not entirely clad with iron, the exposed parts being of about the same value for defence that a cigar box would be to a minie ball.
Nor would their iron plating amount to much more in resisting pro- jectiles of or 1, pounds, propelled with from to pounds of powder; and it remains to be seen what effect a thousand pound shell would have, exploded alongside of an iron-clad, charged with fuminating powder, gun-cotton, or nitro- glycerin.
Doubtless the ship would be relieved of some of its iron plates. Of course no nation will ever send ships to fight such forts, but only to pass them, if they could. Further information may be obtained by addressing James T.
The Editors are not responotbie for the Opinions expressed by their 6or resswndents. Is the Age of Invention at a Stand Still?CIHS English 2 Honors Summer Reading Assignment Dear Prospective English 2 Honors Students: Attached you will find the summer reading and writing assignments required for .
D 21 77 1 2 Courses for Graduate Students Only Secondary Reading Practicum. (3). Designed to offer read ing practicum ex perience to reading teachers in a secondary school setting. Prerequisi tes: IS or , and or equivalent. D 21 2 Research In Reading.
(3). General program policies are estab lished by the honors director with con sultation and advice from the Senate Honors Committee and the Honors Ex ecutive Committee.
The honors director, chief administrative officer for the pro gram, is accountable to the vice presi dent for academic affairs. Feb 01, · A Study of Experience Credit for Professional Engineering Licensure.
SciTech Connect. Martin, M.A. Oak Ridge National Laboratory performed a study of experience credit. English II Honors Summer Reading Assignment This year we will be using Padlet to complete our summer reading assignment.
Padlet is a unique website that allows multiple forms of information posting. For our purposes think of it as an online bulletin board. You will have to go to. English II Honors. Summer Reading Study Guide.
Never to Forget: The Jews of the Holocaust. Welcome to English II Honors. This title is important for a myriad of reasons.