Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons. Both Jewish, we were raised upper-middle class in comfortable, liberal suburbia he, Santa Monica; me, outside Boston.
Campaign[ edit ] While the election was a re-match of the electionit ushered in a new type of American politics, a two-party republic and acrimonious campaigning behind the scenes and through the press. On top of this, the election pitted the "larger than life" Adams and Jefferson, who were former close allies turned political enemies.
Federalists spread rumours that the Democratic-Republicans were radicals who would ruin the country based on the Democratic-Republican support for the French Revolution. InGeorge Washington had complained "that you could as soon scrub the blackamoor white, as to change the principles of a professed Democrat; and that he will leave nothing unattempted to overturn the Government of this Country".
The Democratic-Republicans felt that the Adams foreign policy was too favorable toward Britain; feared that the new army called up for the Quasi-War would oppress the people; opposed new taxes to pay for war; and attacked the Alien and Sedition Acts as violations of states' rights and the Constitution.
Hamilton had apparently grown impatient with Adams and wanted a new president who was more receptive to his goals. During Washington's presidency, Hamilton had been able to influence the federal response to the Whiskey Rebellion which threatened the government's power to tax citizens.
When Washington announced that he would not seek a third term, Adams was widely recognized by the Federalists as next-in-line. Hamilton appears to have hoped in that his influence within an Adams administration would be as great as or greater than in Washington's.
ByHamilton had come to realize that Adams was too independent and thought the Federalist vice presidential candidate, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney of South Carolina, more suited to serving Hamilton's interests.
In his third sabotage attempt toward Adams,  Hamilton quietly schemed to elect Pinckney to the presidency. Given Pinckney's lack of political experience, he would have been expected to be open to Hamilton's influence. However, Hamilton's plan backfired and hurt the Federalist party, particularly after one of his letters, a scathing criticism of Adams that was fifty-four pages long,  fell into the hands of a Democratic-Republican and soon after became public.
It embarrassed Adams and damaged Hamilton's efforts on behalf of Pinckney,  not to mention speeding Hamilton's own political decline. In several states, this included changing the process of selecting electors to ensure the desired result. In Georgia, Democratic-Republican legislators replaced the popular vote with selection by the state legislature.
Federalist legislators did the same in Massachusetts and New Hampshire. This may have had some unintended consequences in Massachusetts, where the makeup of the delegation to the House of Representatives changed from 12 Federalists and 2 Democratic-Republicans to 8 Federalists and 6 Democratic-Republicans, perhaps the result of backlash on the part of the electorate.
Pennsylvania also switched to legislative choice, but this resulted in an almost evenly split set of electors.
Virginia switched from electoral districts to winner-take-all, a move that probably switched one or two votes out of the Federalist column. Voting[ edit ] Results by county explicitly indicating the percentage of the winning candidate in each county.
Shades of blue are for Jefferson Democratic-Republican and shades of yellow are for Adams Federalist. Because each state could choose its own election day invoting lasted from April to October.
In April, Burr's successful mobilization of the vote in New York City succeeded in reversing the Federalist majority in the state legislature to provide decisive support for the Democratic-Republican ticket.
With the two parties tied 63—63 in the Electoral College in the autumn ofthe last state to vote, South Carolina, chose eight Democratic-Republicans to award the election to Jefferson and Burr. Under the United States Constitution as it then stood, each elector cast two votes, and the candidate with a majority of the votes was elected president, with the vice presidency going to the runner-up.
The Federalists therefore arranged for one of their electors to vote for John Jay rather than for Pinckney.The Media Has A Probability Problem The media’s demand for certainty — and its lack of statistical rigor — is a bad match for our complex world. This essay delves deeply into the origins of the Vietnam War, critiques U.S.
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